1 thought on “What are the Chinese sculptures?”

  1. The original form of the original sculpture of China is a pottery product, which is inseparable from the actual value: First, the animal shape is the utensil, such as the pottery eagle unearthed from the Yangshao cultural site, 36 cm high, with the eagle body as a tripod, two -footed feet with two feet. It is one of the representative works that are perfectly combined with such sculptures and utensils. The second is the sculpture of the decorative part. The subjects include animals, plants, characters, and so on. The avatars unearthed from the Gansu Daxi Bay can be described as the beginning of the sculpture of the early Chinese figures. The author cleverly shapes the mouth of the pottery bottle into a person's avatar, making delicate and vivid images. Third, small animals or characters pinch plastic. This kind of small sculpture is made by ancient craftsmen without any tools. The shape is small and has a strong human taste. The pottery pigs unearthed from the Culture site of Zhejiang Henu Culture may be the oldest sculpture in the Jiangnan area of ​​my country, which has been 7,000 years ago. Although the work is only 6.3 cm, its image is very vivid, and the sculptor's observation of life is delicate.
    The bronze wares of the business and weekly period are cultural phenomena in Henan Erlitou from the 21st to 17th centuries BC. Like the nature of the original pottery, the bronze in the Shang and Zhou Dynasty is not a sculpture in the actual sense. It is a practical utensil for sacrifice, life, musical instruments, weapons, tools, etc. Historians call Xia, Shang, and Zhou as the Bronze Age. These large amounts of bronze are occupied by slave owners, and they are also symbols of some kind of rule, authority, and wealth.
    The Qin Dynasty has developed significantly in sculpture. The most noticeable is the large potter and horse warriors and copper and horses. After Qin Shihuang swallowed the six countries, he established the Qin dynasty to unify currency, text, measurement, etc. The theme of the sculpture of the Qin Dynasty was closer to life, and from the functional point of view, it gradually became independent. The Qin Dynasty inherited the simplicity of the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period, and his works became realistic. The overall sculpture style of the Qin and Han dynasties is relatively magnificent, emphasizing strength and momentum.
    The Han Dynasty was the most powerful period in the feudal society in China. For example, Huo went to the illness of the Western Han Dynasty, and there are still a group of outstanding stone carving art works, which are created to commemorate the famous Western Han Dynasty star Huo Qubu. The Huns Hun Huns high 190 centimeters. The author used a metaphorical technique to reflect Huo Qubing's mobility and great achievements, and fully reflects the generality of commemorative sculptures. The entire sculpture is integrated, and there is no space between the limbs, which enhances the weight of the body and quantity.
    During the Three Kingdoms, the two Jin Dynasty, and the Northern and Southern Dynasties, the sculpture art of my country was fully developed. The prevalence of Buddhism has prompted the art of Buddha statues to flourish, changing the appearance of the history of Chinese sculpture, and the sculptures of characters are more mature.
    The first type of Buddha statue art is the form of a grotto, Dunhuang Grottoes, Bingling Temple Grottoes, Xinjiang Pay City Kizil Grottoes, etc., all have clear annual questions; Jishan Grottoes, Zhangye Horseshoe Temple Grottoes, Ningxia Guyuan Sumi Mountain Grottoes, Yungang Grottoes in Datong, Shanxi, Longmen Grottoes in Luoyang in Henan, Handan Handan, Handan, and Nanjing Qixia Mountain Grottoes in Jiangsu.
    Itti resumed centralization in the Sui Dynasty, and in the short term, the situation of agriculture, work, and business prosperity and prosperity appeared. Buddhism is still the main tool of ideological rule, and the Buddhist temples and statues destroyed by Emperor Wu of the Northern Zhou Dynasty were vigorously restored. The main achievements are concentrated on the statue of the grotto. Among them, the most representative is the Dunhuang Mogao Grottoes, Maijishan Grottoes, and Jinan Yushan Grottoes. The main feature of its shape is that it is generally more healthy and full of body. But another feature of this period -it can also be said to be weak, that is, the imbalance in proportion, and some works are obviously not reasonable in structure and proportion. Essence This is a period of transitional development. The sculpture art of my country has opened a brighter prelude from the Sui Dynasty.
    The sculpture art in the Tang Dynasty was mainly reflected in religious statues and tombs. However, during this period, with the development of process technology, the use of materials is more abundant. In addition to stone carvings, wood carvings, and ceramics, it also uses a large number of process materials such as clamps and copper.
    The sculpture style in the early Tang Dynasty, basically the traces of the previous generation (Northern and Sui Dynasty) were still left. The promotion of prosperity began in the early Tang Dynasty, but the shaping of women was not as lively and moving as during the Tang Dynasty. The vigorous development of socioeconomic and economy has prompted people's religious concepts to change. The overall social appearance during the Tang Dynasty was more optimistic and open -minded, and Buddhist art also had a secular tendency. The characters in painting and sculpture were close to the image of real life.
    The Buddhist statues in the Tang Dynasty were very large, mainly reflected in the cave and cliff stone carvings. The existing relics are mostly concentrated in Xinjiang Kizil Grottoes, Mogao Grottoes in Dunhuang, Gansu, Tianshui Maiji Mountain, Shanxi Tianlongshan Grottoes, Binfo Temple in Bin County, Shaanxi, Xiangtang Mountain Grottoes, Henan Longmen Grottoes, Shandong Yunmen Mountain Grottoes, Sichuan Guangyuan Qianfo Cliff, Leshan Cliff Stone Carvings, Yunnan Jianchuan Grottoes, etc.
    of which, the largest scale and the most obvious artistic characteristics, the first Dunhuang. The caves excavated during the Tang Dynasty accounted for half of all Dunhuang Grottoes. The statue of the bodhisattva shaped, from the image and dress, basically based on the typical image of the beauty at that time, the semi -sitting sitting style of one leg and a sagging of one leg appeared. The secular beauty has broken the atmosphere of religious imprisonment, and emphasizes artistic effects, and seems to talk to the worshipers. We can compare the works of the famous figures and painters of the contemporaries Zhang Xuan, Zhou Yan, and others. It can be seen that they have the same wonderful work between them, and in terms of body proportions and instrument shapes, they are more vibrant. Compared with the solemnity and birth of the art of religious sculptures, the Buddhist statues of the Tang Dynasty combined the ideals with reality well, with both a dignified side and elegant and elegant side; There is also a soft and delicate side. The character sculptures of the Tang Dynasty paid great attention to the character of the characters, especially when dealing with the relationship between the group sculptures, and grasped the internal emotional exchanges between the characters. For example, the Buddha owner and his disciples, Gaga, and Dark Ananda have a variety of images. Two characters are old and one young, one Han people, and one of them is the image of Indians, although they all show their devotion, But they can still see their mood. For another example, the statue of the mana protector, its job director determines their strong and mighty image. The facial expression is fierce and the muscles of the limbs are developed. Different character statues are combined with the relationship between the relationship between the characters of the group, highlighting the center, which is in line with the formal rules of the beauty of sculpture.
    The historical stage of Song, Liao, and Jin, sculpture art has a different style of style, and also produces some influential works, but in general, it is not as good as the Han and Tang dynasties. There is no important position in the history of art.
    Compared with the art of painting in the Song Dynasty, the achievement of sculpture art is far behind, which has a lot to do with the ruler's goodness and attention. Palace painters selected through similar science systems have high cultivation, while the employees of the sculpture industry do not get attention and even subject to discrimination. With the rise of literati paintings, the social status of sculpture artists has become humble, and it is not surprising that such modeling art is declining.
    The Northern Song Dynasty has been constantly invaded by foreigners, and there is almost no intention to build a large -scale grotto as much as the Tang Dynasty. Some of the small -scale grottoes were left. For example, in the Wanfo Cave Grottoes in Qing'an Qingliangshan, Fan Zhongyan in the Northern Song Dynasty had a record of his poems. Another example is the Shikong Temple Grottoes of Zishang County. From the perspective of the inscriptions, its excavation era was in the Northern Song Dynasty. The best part was the portrait of the Luohan group. The Great Football Carvings of Sichuan belong to the Song Dynasty. There are many, which are more representative. It uses the natural mountains, the cliff wall is stuck, the project is huge and the content is complicated. The most important part is the Western Bliss World. There are many characters, the scenes are complicated, but the layers are clear and detailed. The neighbor is the disguise of hell, which realizes the tragedy of the victims in hell, and reproduces the scenes of various daily life with realistic carving methods. These stone carvings are carved on the cliffs 4 to 14 meters from the ground, with a total length of more than 500 meters. It has been constructed for decades before and after. The relationship between sculptures is closely and connected to each other. The entire layout is tall and complete, the sculpting techniques are skilled, and the details are vivid. For example, a chicken -breed woman's image in hell is completely based on real life. Another important part of Dazu stone carvings is hard disk slopes, Guanyinpo, Buddha Rock, Beita Temple and other places. The whole excavation lasted more than 250 years. There should be one of the many supporting artificial statues that should be paid attention to, all of which show their identity, status and engraving age. This is a rare physical material for studying the history of the Song Dynasty. Fei Laifeng in Hangzhou, Zhejiang has a relatively concentrated Song Dynasty sculpture. Although the size is not large, its artistic level accounts for a relatively important position in the sculpture of the Song Dynasty.
    The cultural and artistic characteristics of the Ming Dynasty obviously traced traces of the style of Tang and Song. In a large number of temples, there are all kinds of idols, which are becoming more secular and folk in terms of subject matter to expressive methods. The cave carving is close to the end. Although there are still Ming Dynasty works in large -scale caves such as Dunhuang, as far as its artistic value is concerned, it can no longer be mentioned for the history of sculpture. Thirteen Tombs have now become a well -known tourist attraction in Beijing. It is located in Changping County. It is a concentrated area of ​​the tomb of the thirteen emperors of the Ming Dynasty.
    The sculpture groups arranged by the Chengzu Changling as the center of the Thirteen Tombs are consistent with Xiaoling, but it is different from the previous generation. 6 pairs of stone characters, 4 pairs of stone tigers, 4 pairs of stone sheep, 2 pairs of officials, 28 pairs of officials, and 28 pairs of servants. Building, palace gate, stele pavilion and other buildings. The stone carvings of the Thirteen Mausoleum are larger than Xiaoling. From the overall style, although there are relatively fine technical treatment, compared with the previous generation, it lacks artistic vitality and has the tendency of conceptualization.
    In the history of Chinese sculptures, the tomb sculpture of the Qing Dynasty was already ending.
    The urban industrial and commercial economy in the Qing Dynasty was further prosperous, handicraft technology has been greatly developed, and the art of craft sculpture has also received unprecedented attention. The court set up specialized agencies to urge and organize production. There are some excellent smells such as lacquer, stone carvings, dental carvings, wood carvings, porcelain plastic, metal casting and other art categories, and many excellent carving masters have appeared.
    Myead jade phoenix
    The jade carving technology in the Shang and Zhou dynasties has greatly improved, and its exquisiteness can be seen from a large number of physical objects unearthed from the tomb of Yin Ruins.
    Meority jade phoenix
    women are the concubines of Shangwang Wuding. In 1976, her tomb was accidentally discovered on the southwest side of the Yinxu site of Anyang, Henan. More than 1,600 cultural relics were unearthed, and the jade articles accounted for 755 pieces. One of the jade sculptures with a large number of animals is vivid and vivid, and the level of craftsmanship is extremely high. For example, the two hawds with a slightly brown yellow pornographic bunny, opened your eyes, long ears, towering on the short tail, and bowing, as if you were jumping forward. In addition, there are giant tigers, the phoenix birds with Huaguan Xiuwei, the small elephant played by the nose, the proud bird of the beak, the bear squatting with the knee, and the dexterous and cute monkey.除飞禽走兽外,还有水族和草虫,以及一些神话中的动物,总计不下20余种,包括猴、兔、马、牛、羊、鹤、鹰、鹅、鸬鹚、鹦鹉、鱼、蛙、螂, cicada, praying mantis, dragon, phoenix and monster birds. Among them, there are six or seven small jade dragons. The beasts are snakes, and there is a long rhder in the back of the neck. The continuity.
    among the jade unearthed from the tomb of the woman, there are more than 20 parrots, all of which are flat embossed. The shape highlights the characteristics of high crowns, long tails, and hook beaks. Taking a pair of tail double parrots as an example, the two birds head are linked to the tail to form a uniform and symmetrical composition. , Form the semi -circular outer contour line, which looks stable and continuous; the crown feathers of the two birds are towering, and the back wings form a concave line, which appears to be changing, making the work stable and smart, intriguing. The end surface of the jade parrot is grinded into a sharp slanting blade, which can be used as a jade carving knife, which is both ornamental and practical.
    It as shown in the figure, the tomb of jade and phoenix is ​​unearthed in Yinxu, Anyang, Henan. The height is 13.6 cm, 0.7 cm thick, yellow -brown, exquisitely carved, jade and phoenix. The crown is like a chicken, with a long wing and a long tail, and the wings are carved with the hair pattern of the yang line. 755 pieces of jade unearthed from the tomb of the woman, and the only one of Yufeng. This device is the best physical object of the image of the phoenix in the minds of the merchants.
    Terracotta warriors
    The significance of the Terracotta Warriors and Horses of the Qin Emperor lies in the precedent of creating a large -scale military genre sculpture group. It is worthy of the model of ancient sculpture artistic realism.
    The reality is the basic style of terracotta warriors and horses. The size of the terracotta warriors and horses is similar to real life in real life. Pottery figurines such as armor and shirts were the simulation of military costumes at that time, and the chariots and weapons equipped for terracotta warriors and horses were real physical objects. Judging from the shape of the pottery figurines, not only the actual lineup of various arms was reproduced, but also successfully shaped the character image of the Qin Army's different ages and personality. These different forms of character and lifelike characters are the reproduction of Qin Jun's different lives. rn从人物的身份来看,那头戴鶡冠、身着双层战袍、外披彩色鱼鳞甲,拄剑伫立,昂首挺胸,体魄魁伟,气宇非凡者,显然是大智大勇、 Commanded Ruo Ding's generals; those who wear long crowns, shirts, long armor, and serious face are likely to be the commander of the generals who are good at strategies and auxiliary generals; Wearing boots, holding a crossbow, and carrying arrows, it is undoubtedly light -up for the Qin Army; those helmets are free of hair, wearing a jersey, wearing a armor, holding a long shot or a long soldier. warrior. In terms of age, the elderly, the long beard, the wrinkles on the forehead, seemingly calm, old and more conspiracy; the middle of the adults, the face is wide, the heaven is full, the eyebrows are flying, and the blood is rigid, the mighty and kind; The young man, his head is slightly low, his eyebrows are beautiful, and they look quiet and simple.
    It's functions of officers and soldiers, wearing long crowns, extending arms forward, and holding hands with both hands, the image of the royal person; wearing a leather, wearing a short armor, wearing tight -tight crotch trousers. Paying the short boots, standing in front of the horse, raising his head upright, looking ahead, holding a bow in one hand, and a bow in one hand, the image of the Qin Army cavalry with a strong machine; On the ground, the left leg bent, the body twisted to the left, and the eyes stared at the left front. It was the images of the archer in the kneeling archer in the police and brave Qin Army; The left leg is slightly arched, the right leg is stretched, the right arm is curved on the chest, the left arm is stretched straight to the left, the head is to the left, and the head looks at the left front. In addition to the ethnic group, in addition to most of the Han and Han people, there are also the images of Hu people with deep noses and cheeks.
    The person with a smile and satisfaction from the facial expression; there are rigidity, no expression; those who have facial features, wide faces and fat; those who are stable and elegant and elegant Permanent. These complex and diverse facial expressions and various terracotta warriors have truly reflected the actual situation of the Qin Army, so they have more realistic artistic characteristics. This is the successful model of sculpture art in the long river of history.
    The realistic techniques of the Terracotta Warriors and Horses and Horses not only manifested in the overall grasp, but also reflects the meticulous and realistic characteristics in terms of detail. Such as the hairstyle of the Qin figurines, there are spiral patterns, wave types, etc. There are three or six stories of the braids. The cocks are twisted, and they are clear. The hair is clearly visible. The hair of pottery figurines has a single ring, a double ring, a three -ring bun, a four -ring bun, etc., which shows the real life. Various styles of the hairpin. The leader of the bun has a fan -shaped shape, some folded waves, and some of them are rolling. The clothing patterns of pottery figurines are twisted with the body, and they are portrayed. The nails of the armor of the armor of the armor are dense, and it is not bad. The leather belts and hooks of pottery figurines, the lines of the legs, and the details of the legs, and the details of boots and performances have extremely high similarity to the actual contrast. Even the tightly arranged on both ends of the right foot of the kneeling figurines is also based on the consideration of the severity of the severity of the part of the person's feet. Like the bone joints and nails on the fingers, they are also very realistic. Even the unspecked details of the teeth in Taomakou are quite ingenious, shaping 6 teeth to indicate that Ma Zheng is in the young age and shows the realist techniques to the fullest. His artistic status and significance are not only in China, but also a glorious page in the history of world art development.
    If attention to visual effects is an important feature of the sculpture of the Terracotta Warriors and Horses. The art of terracotta warriors is derived from life and life. Although the basic tone is realistic, it has broken through the limitations of realism. That is, the realistic technique does not rule out that the sculptor can gallop their imagination, and can use various expressions such as expressiveness, exaggeration, generalization, meaning, symbols, etc. For some local characteristics of the human body, it is not blindly pursuing the truth of the subtle quarter, but strives to grasp the key parts for appropriate exaggeration. This exaggeration does not make people feel false, but gives people a sense of clearness and refining, making the character's personality more distinctive and prominent. For example, people's eyebrows and eyebrow bones have no thickness, but the eyebrows of the Qin figurines are added with thickness, and the eyebrow bones are shaped with horns and edges. Visually, the image is bright and clear from a distance, and it is not true. Another example is that the thumb of a person was relatively short, but some of the Qin figurines half -fisting handed the thumb for a long time and raised high. Because the thumb of the hand is not tied with the remaining four fingers, it will not make people feel unsuitable visually, but give people a sense of strength. There are also Qin figurines that are tall and bonding. Is the Qin Army soldiers really belly? However, it is not practical to be visually shaped like this. Instead, it will think that the Qin Army should have been this kind of fullness, attack, and invincible. The shaping of Tao Ma is also the same. The head of the horse head is positive, the edges and corners are revealed, the ears are short, the eyes are large and god, the nose is wide, the horse's body is round, the leg tendons are prominent, the shape is vivid and realistic, and it looks unusual. Faced with speechless terracotta warriors, people can understand the heritage of the art style of the Qin figurine sculpture through visual feelings.
    In short, the exquisite Qin Terracotta Warriors sculpture art has inherited the tradition of ancient realistic art in my country, and has opened up a new realm in terms of artistic style and artistic skills. It pays attention to the great achievements of visual effects. It marks that the art of ancient sculptures in my country has matured and gradually formed its own unique national style.
    This Terracotta Warriors and Horses pass on people's attractiveness and shock, reflecting its superb artistic effects. It cleverly handles the relationship between quietness and movement, so that the arrangement of large scenes and the shape of individual image is more harmonious, and it has achieved a complete and unified artistic effect. The Terracotta Warriors and Horses of the Emperor Qin Shihuang were the product of the spirit of the times and the peak of ancient realistic art.
    Ma Steel Feiyan
    Ma Zafeiyan is an outstanding work in the Eastern Han Dynasty sculpture art and copper -casting craftsmanship. It represents the highest artistic achievements in the Eastern Han Dynasty in the history of Chinese sculpture. The bronze horse's head, four hoofs rolled, the ponytails are high, his mouth is hissing, and Mercedes -Benz moves forward with a rare opposite side. The third feet were empty, and the right hoof stepped on a swallow back that was flying. Yan Gu first stared at it, echoing, and the head of the horse's head. All of this is in an instant. Due to the brisk horseshoe, the fluttering of the horse's mane and ponytails, just like the horses, and even Feiyan was shocked and fast, which increased the momentum of the bronze horse. The horses are rearranged, and the small Feiyan can be settled, reflecting the ingenuity of the designer. The lines of Ma and Yan are smooth, proportional, and the dynamic performance of Mercedes -Benz and flying vividly, vividly reflects the moment when the horse Mercedes -Benz and flying birds are fighting first. This device is a magical and rare treasure in the history of ancient sculptures in my country. It is currently a symbol of China Tourism, which means a thousand miles a day, and the horse is successful.
    The days back to the mountain drum rap figurines
    The return to the mountain pottery group in the day, and found in Tianhui cliff cliff at 10 kilometers outside the north gate of Chengdu City, Sichuan Province in 1957. The time is Guanghe Twenty -five years to Jian'an (184-220).
    The drum rap figurine Han
    Teao figurines include male and female dance figurines, listening to the piano figurines, men and women's dits figurines, holding bottle (or mirror shovel) figurines, samurai figurines, rap figurines; , Chicken, duck, long -tailed chicken, etc., are all fine products of the sculpture art of the Han Dynasty.
    "Drumming Rap", gray pottery, 55 cm high, was produced in the Eastern Han Dynasty, and was unearthed in the cliff tomb of Tianhui, Chengdu, Sichuan, and is now collected in the Chinese History Museum. Tianshan pottery plastic, Chinese Eastern Han Dynasty in the late Eastern Han Dynasty.
    The figurines have a very important position in the sculpture of the Han Dynasty. They have a wide range of subject matter and rich content. From car and horse to guard's slave, drink from kitchen banquet to singing and dancing. Social life. Although these figurines are relatively small than similar works in the Qin Dynasty, they show strong realistic style and have high artistic value.
    The Chinese figurines in Sichuan are unique and richer in content. Among the many statues of the foreigners unearthed, the most famous is this "Drum Singing Target". Singing the figurine sitting on the ground, the head is huge, wrapped in a headscarf, the forehead was covered with wrinkles, shirtless, and a round drum on his left arm, and his right hand was high. The performance of this rap figurine seemed to have entered a climax. He was proud, his expression was excited, his expression was exaggerated, and he unconsciously danced ... What exciting scene! Although people do not understand the specific content of his rap, when they see this enthusiastic, optimistic, vitality and humor, they will make a concentrated smile, and they can even imagine that in front of this rap figurine, there are just there are exactly there are existence. A group of exciting audiences are listening to his outstanding performance! It can be seen how creative and imaginative the sculptors of the Han Dynasty were. They did not simply imitate the scenes in life, but used extremely bold and exaggerated methods, focusing on expressing the special spirit of the rapper. The author uses a virtual way to create a hidden dramatic and wonderful scene through the association role of the appreciation. This dramatic scene in virtual itself also reflects the lively momentum unique to the art of the Han Dynasty. This work is also a precious historical material for studying the folk customs and pottery art of the Han Dynasty.
    Longmen Grottoes
    2000, Luoyang Longmen Grottoes voted for all members of the United Nations World Heritage Committee of the United Nations Science and Education Organization World Heritage Committee, and officially included in the World Cultural Heritage List in Keynes, Australia. The classic masterpiece of carving art left to the world during the heyday of ancient China has since been recognized and protected by the world.
    Tongmen Grottoes are located 12 kilometers south of Luoyang City and are one of the four major caves in my country. There is a water here. Because the Xiangshan and Longmen Mountains on both sides of Yishui are like natural gates, so the ancient is called Yisu, and after the Sui and Tang dynasties, it is known as Longmen. During the 400 years from the Northern Wei Dynasty to the late Tang Dynasty, the ancient craftsmen built temples on these two mountains, which made it a treasure trove of the world -famous stone carving art.
    The statue of the grotto was created in the Northern Wei Dynasty Emperor Xiaowen's movement of Luoyang (Taihe Ten Years, AD 493), and after more than 400 years of the East and West, the Northern Qi, the Northern Zhou, the Sui, and the Tang Dynasty, It is more than 150 years. The north and south of Longmen Grottoes are 1 kilometer, and the two mountain caves are densely like honeycomb. Its representative caves include Guyang Cave, Binyang Cave, Lotus Cave, Pharmaceutical Cave, and Qianxi Temple, Wanfo Cave, Fengxian Temple, and Shi Jing Temple in the Tang Dynasty. More than 97,300 respects, more than 3,600 inscriptions and monuments, 39 pagodas. The flying sky in the grotto, either soaring freely in the flowing clouds, or holding the fruit in the air, or playing music, or the rain of Bassa, the lightness of the gesture, the elegance of the expression, is breathtaking.
    The largest open -air bullet in Longmen Grottoes. Tang Gaozong was excavated in the early years and completed the second year (675). The Buddha is 36 meters wide from north to south and 41 meters long. There are 9 statues such as Lusana Buddha and his disciples, Bodhisattva, King, and Lux. The main Buddha Lushe is 17.14 meters high, with a plump face, long eyebrows, and slightly tilted mouth, revealing the attention of the world and the light of wisdom. This Buddha statue and Wu Zetian's facial features in the painting are extremely similar, so people say that this is the incarnation of Wu Zetian. The disciples on both sides, Ka Ye's rigorous and heavy, Ananda is gentle and devout, the bodhisattva is dignified and stubborn, the king frowned, and Lux ​​is mighty. Both portrait and spirituality, skillful sword method, is a masterpiece in the sculpture art of the Tang Dynasty.
    The Longmen Grottoes are broad -minded, deeply contained in, and exquisite carvings. It is a world -renowned treasure trove of art. It is also an important material for studying ancient Chinese history and art.
    Tang Sancai horse
    Tang Taizong Li Shimin in order to pursue the six battle horses who followed him and died together, and once ordered at the time of Zhaoling to engrav the sixth Jun in Zhaoling. Art treasures, Tang Sancai has a great impact on the Ma culture of the Tang Dynasty. Today, through the collection of famous and expensive horses, we can still feel this deeply. In their body, we can see the shadow of Zhaoling Liujun more or less. Therefore, horse is the most common theme in the culture and art of the Tang Dynasty.
    Tang Sancai
    Tang Sancai horses can reflect the gorgeous glory of Tang culture in various ways, which not only provides people with valuable physical materials to understand the historical value of Chinese Tang culture, but also make a group of Chinese and foreign collectors. Delive by its artistic charm. Tang Sancai has long received the attention of domestic and foreign merchants, and has settled the highest price of Chinese ceramic art auctions.
    The tomb in Gaozong and the Empress During the martial arts period, the funeral figurines have shown the style of the Tang Dynasty. The town tomb figurines with the appearance of the armored samurai have been changed to the tomb figurine of the King of the King of the King of Beasts. The figurines are wearing a crown and dignified. The ox cart in the center of the travel figurines since the Western Jin Dynasty has been replaced by a distinctive horse. It turned out that the military atmosphere with a strong military atmosphere with reinstallation of cavalry in the Northern and Southern Dynasties was popular. At this time, it was already full of pleasure. The reinstalled cavalry gradually disappeared. Cheetah, forming the ranks of hunting. There are also horse riding bands and horses in the queue.
    During this period, the glaze and vivid three -color figurine appeared, reaching the highest peak of the ancient Chinese figurine art. This is a figurine made of low -temperature glaze pottery (firing temperature at 800 ° C ~ 1100 ° C) with a variety of glaze. The glaze is bright but opaque. The color is mainly yellow, green, and color, so it is commonly known as Tang Sancai. In fact, there are more than 3 types of glaze, as well as blue and black.
    During the opening of the yuan and Tianbao years, the unprecedented prosperity of the socioeconomic and economy has led people to advocate the extravagance of extravagance and promote the most prosperous period of the three -color craftsmanship. At this time, the character shape of the three -color figurine was full of fat, especially the female figurines, high skirts, rich face, gracefulness, and reflecting the aesthetic style of the society at that time. The characters are accurate and the contour curve is full of changes, showing the high artistic achievements of the round sculptures of characters in the Tang Dynasty.
    The most vivid appearance of Tang Sancai is the horse. The most representative is the two groups of four three -color horses unearthed in the tomb of Xiaoting in 723. Their height is more than 50 cm. The two hairs are pure white, and the other two are white hoof yellow horses with white -fledged patterns on the neck. The four horses are very vivid, long -necked fat, and have a well -sized bone. The ponytail ligates into corners. The horses are clear. The crickets and saddle and autumn leather belts are decorated with beautiful golden flowers and apricot leaves. A pair of white horses cut out the three flowers of the time, and the other pair of white hoof yellow horses only cut the horse's mane out of the flower. A very rare camel loading figurine was unearthed in the tomb of the court. On the platform of the camel back, the four -person band and a green man who danced danced. The camel is strong and beautiful, and the image of music figurines and dance figurines is vivid.

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