Top 47 47 top swot analysis is the most applied tool for us. He represents a way of thinking. The meaning of SWOT analysis is two: 1 is your business positioning, 2 is you Analysis of strategic orientation. The following article pointed out that the defects of SWOT itself, and it can be made up for the new competition form. I think it is very worthy of learning and discussion -although it is a pure theory discussion, I have heard a similar point of view mentioned in the past. , But I think this article summarizes clearly.
From the perspective of strategic management teaching, many strategic management textbooks still use SWOT analysis as the layout of the book. People are familiar with SWOT analysis. Most of the case analysis must be used. In the field of corporate management consulting, there are many strategic consulting reports as analysis tools. So is SWOT analysis a complete analysis tool? What problems and defects does it have?
SWOT analysis was first proposed by Learned et al. In 1965, it was widely used in the strategic management field. For the internal analysis of the enterprise, from the initial simple checklist to the concepts of specific energy resistance (), value chain, and core capabilities, it can be regarded as the development of advantages. In addition to PEST analysis, Porter ’s competitive strategy theory on the external environment of enterprises with industry as the object further refined, these undoubtedly have an important impact on the development of strategic management theory and practice.
swot's implicit assumptions
strategic decision -making needs information, SWOT analysis of the information required by strategic decision -making is divided: internal and external information Information in the environment where the enterprise is located; the distinction of interests, that is, internal advantages of enterprises that are beneficial to the enterprise (S), external opportunities (O), and internal disadvantages of harmful to the enterprise (W) and external threats (T). There is no doubt, this kind of The classification has greatly clarified and simplified the information that needs to be mastered when the enterprise formulates strategy.
In SWOT analysis, it is usually believed that opportunities and threats exist in only the external environment, and the advantages and disadvantages only exist in the internal situation. It may also appear inside the enterprise.
Penrose pointed out that the development opportunities of enterprises often exist within the enterprise, and the remaining productive resources within the enterprise are an important opportunity for enterprises to grow. What's more important is that many times the enterprise is difficult to divide inside and outside. It is believed that the company's capabilities are nested in the network that depends on each other. The interdependence in this network exists both inside the enterprise and between the enterprise and the environment.
barney believes that environmental analysis usually cannot get excess returns. If it is obtained by it, it is also luck, because the method and information of environmental analysis are open, and any company can get it. Only analyzing the company's implementation of the product market The unique assets of the strategy, such as proprietary technology, can get excess returns.
Barney's analysis is still internal and external divisions. Even the analysis environment must be affected by the internal factors of the enterprise. The value of the organization of assets can only show its value in a fixed environment. Can show a more complete strategic view. If you list the internal advantages and disadvantages of the enterprise in the SWOT analysis, and the opportunities and threats of the external environment, and then the standards and disadvantages adopted by some internal and external stages, it is often based on the operating needs of the business and the historical performance of the organizational characteristics.
This threats and opportunities can target the same incident, because if the enterprise grasps or handle well, it will have the opportunity to monopolize it, otherwise it may be stunned. This situation can become a crisis. For example, if China joins the WTO, this is the case for many Chinese companies.
Therefore, the advantages and disadvantages of SWOT have split the continuous unity of the internal situation of the enterprise, and the distinction between opportunities and threats cannot reflect the interests of the same incident. And it has been proven to be difficult to operate in practice. The external changes of the enterprise have caused changes in the advantages of the enterprise, which also shows the closeness of the connection between the company's internal and external connections from another aspect. In other words, the division of the internal and external environment is only the convenience of analysis, not the reality of the enterprise.
The assumptions of interest distinguishing
The judgment of advantages and disadvantages is actually a complex measurement problem. From the perspective of measurement, the measurement of internal and external conditions in the enterprise will often be manifested as a continuous body, the relative nature and degree of advantages and disadvantages of the use of SWOT analysis adopting the appropriate measurement standards, which is compared to the distinction between the distinctive advantages and disadvantages. More objective. However, there is a lack of clear measurement standards for advantages and disadvantages, opportunities, and threats.
For example, if the advantage is more advantageous with the company's own history, pre -planning, competitors, or the situation of the customer's needs?
stevenson's research shows that the advantage is on the advantage There are three standards of historical, competitive and planned evaluation criteria for evaluation standards. Enterprises are more used to measure their advantages with historical and competitive standards, and often use planning standards for disadvantages. Although the evaluation steps adopted by the enterprise are similar, there is no uniform standard, and the evaluation is excellent.
The assumptions of static analysis
swot analysis usually scan the inside and outside the enterprise at a certain point, and then analyze the advantages, disadvantages, threats and opportunities to form four internal and external internal and external analysis. The matching strategy is SO strategy: relying on internal advantages and using external opportunities; ST strategy: use internal advantages to avoid external threats; WO strategy: use external opportunities to overcome internal weaknesses; WT strategy: reduce internal weaknesses and avoid external threats. Although some scholars have different explanations of each matching, static analysis of the advantages, disadvantages, opportunities, and threats of the enterprise at present, it is difficult to ensure that the internal and external matching of the internal and external matching of the enterprise will be realized. Whether the advantage is enough to seize the opportunity, fight against threats, whether the disadvantage of the enterprise is so weak to miss the good opportunity and unbearable threat.
. For example, the two strategic planning processes included in SO strategies, that is, take industrial threats and opportunities as an opportunity to analyze the external -oriented strategic planning process of the starting point (five force analysis → industrial positioning → value activity → drive factor) and driving factor) and driving factor) The internal -oriented strategic planning process with internal resources and capabilities (identifying resources and abilities → evaluation resources and capabilities → using resources and capabilities → filling the gap between resources). In the period of stability of the external environment of the enterprise Function, but during the turbulence of the external environment of the enterprise: the industrial structure is blurred, the resources and capabilities of the enterprise are no longer effective, the static analysis of SWOT and the internal and external matching are difficult to have practical significance.
It in other words, SWOT analysis has little help to formulate cross -term development strategies involving industrial evolution and capacity evolution. SWOT analysis implies self -confidence in human rational ability. The internal and external matching strategies of mechanical neglect of ignoring the internal and external matching is often a trial and error and learning process.
In summary, the assumptions implied by SWOT analysis can be said to have the advantages of simplifying and classified information, but also the disadvantage of not being able to comprehensively grasp the information. Threat, however, the strategic management research in recent years has provided rich opportunities for SWOT analysis.
swot's composition element
The strategic management exploration for more than 20 years can be regarded as deepening of SWOT analysis. Representatives; the most representative research on the external research of the enterprise is Porter's theory of competitive strategy. Here is the resource basic point of view, and combined with the theory of competition strategy to analyze the distinction elements of SWOT analysis. The advantage with certain characteristics simply discuss the advantages without any significance. The advantage implies comparative meanings. It is usually compared with competitors to show the advantage. This is also the basis for the special ability. The opponent is particularly good, and in different aspects of the value chain, the company is engaged in their own activities. However, the question is why some companies are not as good as other companies?
The answer to the strategic theory is because other companies have core capabilities. The core capabilities not only make the enterprise do well, but also competition is competitive. It is difficult for the opponent to imitate and copy, and a considerable number of literature discusses the characteristics of the resources and capabilities of the enterprise. For example, the resources that Peteraf can bring the competitive advantage of the enterprise must be heterogeneous, and the relevant competition before and after the accumulation of resources is that the competition before and after the accumulation of resources is the competition. With restrictions, resources are difficult to transfer. Some scholars believe that resources and capabilities that bring competitive advantages to enterprises are valuable, rare, difficult to imitate and replace.
The basic point of view of resource base is the return of classical strategic theory from external -oriented competitive strategy theory to internal orientation. From the level of the production data market, a more convincing explanation of competitive advantages. The definition of competitive advantages of excess revenue in the product market is only the result, not the reason from the basic point of view. There is no doubt that the basic view of the resource has enriched our understanding of advantages.
The opportunity based on advantage -based opportunities SWOT analysis is mainly based on products and markets, which can increase business growth, such as developing new markets, introducing new products, and multi -keratinum. Porter has made further analysis according to the industry's opportunities. For example, there are opportunities to jointly have a joint opportunity in the scattered industry, and there will be opportunities to have the opportunity to move the advantages in emerging industries. Chance.
. However, the heterogeneity of enterprises with basic views of resources shows that different enterprises may face different opportunities, that is, companies with different resources and capabilities can choose different opportunities; since there are certain characteristics, there are certain characteristics. Resources and capabilities bring competitive advantages to enterprises, so it is also an important opportunity to obtain the resources and capabilities required by the enterprise, although the resources that bring the competitive advantage to the company and it often accumulate. This is also studied in the literature of the strategic alliance, that is, strategic alliances are important opportunities for enterprises to obtain resources and capabilities. For example, Tsingtao Beer and the United States A -B are alliance, which enhances the ability of Qingdao Beer to control the consistency of the taste of beer.
The core capabilities that threatened the company that threatened the company with advantages and endangered the advantages could not meet the requirements of the environment. BARTON believes that the core rigidity is an unpopular knowledge set, which is manifested by the good values, skills, operation systems and technical systems that operate well in the company in the past, and may only apply some of the current projects or some projects. For example, in the steel industry in developed countries, large steel plants and its technical scenery are temporarily. However, with the decrease in external demand and the emergence of new technologies, large integrated steel producers often fall into the dilemma of operations.
Porter's competitive strategy theory reveals the five forces that threaten corporate profits. What causes greater harm to enterprises is to damage the resources and capabilities of the enterprise in terms of element level.
The impact of external factors such as technical changes on the ability of corporate resources. It's big. Capability destruction technical change refers to the replacement of one technology on another; disruptive technical changes refer to technology -leading companies that may be frustrated by low -cost enterprises by technology; overall technical change involves local technological progress and system optimization of the system. Essence Therefore, it can be seen here that the static analysis of the advantages of the enterprise is difficult to guide the cross -future development of the enterprise. Today's advantages often become the disadvantage of the enterprise tomorrow because of the threat of technological changes.
The above discussion is SWOT analysis under the basic point of view of the resource. It no longer stays at the product market level for advantages, disadvantages, threats and opportunities. Resources and capabilities, so that we can clearly see the interconnection of advantages, disadvantages, threats, and opportunities, rather than analyzing each other.
SWOT is the analysis of competitors. Since it is marketing, it must be a confidant and knowing one another.
Analysis of the threat of the advantages and disadvantages of the enterprise It can analyze the local land policies and the entire large industry, and then calculate its push -drive speed and target customer and SWOT analysis are mainly used for analysis of competitors through analysis. The content you need It hope you can help you
Like your name, either killing people without seeing blood or no effect. swot is a sharp blade, which is not good.
S -advantage w -Disadvantages o -Opportunity t -threat n can comprehensively analyze your own advantages and disadvantages, your competitors and potential threats. After fully understanding, we can develop efficient marketing planning.
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