5 thoughts on “What are the three major urban agglomerations in China?”

  1. The three major urban agglomerations in China are: Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration, Pearl River Delta urban agglomeration, and Beijing -Tianjin -Hebei urban agglomeration.
    With the development of the economy, my country's urban agglomeration has gradually increased. In 2018, the State Council approved 9 national urban agglomerations, namely the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, Harbin Chang City Group, Chengdu -Chongqing Urban Group, and the Yangtze River. Delta urban agglomeration, Central Plains urban agglomeration, Beibu Gulf urban agglomeration, Guanzhong Plain urban agglomeration, Hulabu Eyu urban agglomeration, and Lanxi urban agglomeration.

    The expansion information:
    The development of Chinese urban agglomeration:
    The 1990s, the significant characteristics of the Chinese economy were the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration, the Pearl River Delta urban agglomeration and Beijing The three major urban agglomerations of Tianjin and Hebei city groups not only develop rapidly, but also have a higher and higher proportion of economic scale in the country, becoming the engine of China's economic development. In the next 20 years, the hinterland of the Yangtze River Delta will continue to expand. Most of Zhejiang, most Jiangsu, and part of Anhui will enter the scope of urban agglomerations.
    Thezhu River Delta region will achieve regional economic integration with Hong Kong and Macau. Its advantages are greater and have stronger radiation. The Pearl River Delta surpasses Tokyo, Japan, becoming the world's largest city belt. The characteristics and advantages of major cities in the Beijing -Tianjin -Hebei urban agglomeration are very obvious and have a strong complementary effect.
    It Beijing has the advantages of political, cultural and high -tech, Tianjin's advantages of ports and manufacturing, and Shijiazhuang has the advantages of business and trade. In particular, the development and opening up of Tianjin Binhai New District has become a national strategy, which has a greater impact on the development of urban agglomerations. Once it breaks through the barriers of administration, the potential for development will be quickly released. It is certain that the three major urban agglomerations will still lead the development of China's economy in the next 20 years.
    Reference materials Source: Baidu Encyclopedia-Urban Group

  2. The competitiveness of the three major urban agglomerations in China is:
    1. The Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration
    2. The Pearl River Delta urban agglomeration
    3. nThe Yangtze River Delta is located in the intersection of the eastern coast of my country and the developed areas along the river. It has outstanding location advantages and strong economic strength. Its core city Shanghai is one of the world's largest cities. The population of the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration is close to the world -class urban agglomerations of North America, Western Europe, and Japan, and may exceed 100 million. The Yangtze River Delta is one of the areas with the fastest and fastest growing process in my country to the world's fastest process. The conditions for constructing a world -class urban agglomeration have basically been available. It is the first to build a world -class urban agglomeration of the Yangtze River Delta, which can test and accumulate experience for exploring China's urbanization roads, and provide demonstrations for my country's urban agglomeration construction. The Yangtze River Delta is my country's largest comprehensive industrial base, with total industrial output value accounting for nearly 1/4 in the country. After the reform and opening up, the Yangtze River Delta has repeatedly appeared in the wave of large -scale industrialization. The first is that the township industry has emerged, and the external economy has developed rapidly after the development of Pudong. In the late 1990s, Taiwan's electronic information manufacturing industry turned to the Yangtze River Delta. Shanghai and Suzhou have become an important e -information industry base in the world. The Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration is at the intersection of the "Gold Coast" and the "Golden Waterway" of the Yangtze River in eastern China, which is very convenient for internal and external economic connections. The Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration has such superior conditions, so it can become a world -class urban agglomeration and an important hub for China's economy into the world economy, thereby accelerating China's international competitiveness and accelerating China's internationalization process.
    [Edit this paragraph] The Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration
    The area of ​​my country's urbanization, the most densely distributed urban distribution, and the highest level of economic development in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration. It is centered on Shanghai and Nanjing and Hangzhou as the deputy center, including Yangzhou, Taizhou, Nantong, Zhenjiang, Changzhou, Wuxi, Suzhou, Xuzhou, Huai'an, Lianyungang, etc. in Jiangsu, Jiaxing, Huzhou, Shaoxing, Ningbo, Zhoushan, Wenzhou in Zhejiang , Taizhou, including Jiangsu, Zhejiang, and Shanghai, with Shanghai -Hangzhou, Shanghai -Nanjing Expressway and multiple railways as links, forming an organic whole.
    In recent years, the Yangtze River Delta has become the "hot soil" of domestic and foreign investors with its good infrastructure, developed scientific and technological education, and an increasingly improved investment environment. In the first half of 2004, this area created a nationwide GDP of 26 % of the country with a land area of ​​2 % of the country and a population of about 10 % of the population. The total economic volume of foreign investment is the leader of the two other urban agglomerations in my country -the Pearl River Delta and the Beijing -Tianjin and Tang dynasties.
    The guidance of the State Council in 2008 on further developing the Yangtze River Delta, officially determined that it will expand the Yangtze River Delta to two provinces and cities, namely Jiangsu Zhejiang Province, and Shanghai. This strategic planning takes into account regional balance and complementarity, and incorporates northern Jiangsu and southwestern Zhejiang into the Yangtze River Delta. It has significantly improved the strength and development potential of the Yangtze River Delta at the level of land, resources, and talents. From less than 1/5 to nearly 1/4, especially northern Jiangsu and southwestern Zhejiang will become the most increasing potential areas, which will play an extremely important role in stimulating the economic growth of the entire region and promoting the industrial configuration of the core areas of the Yangtze River Delta.
    [Edit this paragraph] The key development area of ​​the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration
    The development of urban agglomerations should follow a certain laws of urban development, and every stage of urban agglomeration has its own development in key areas. The Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration is the sixth largest urban agglomeration in the world. According to the analysis of urban development theory and the development trend and trend of the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration, the development of the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration has entered the second stage of the development law of urban belt development. That is to focus on the development of the urban areas of the central city, strengthen the positioning of urban function, and accelerate the advancement of the city's urban network. At present, the key development areas of Shanghai and the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration should have the following five categories:
    1. The core city with comprehensive service functions in the area, Shanghai.
    2. Emerging central cities in the area, such as Suzhou and Wuxi.
    3. Important functional cities in the area, such as Suzhou and Wuxi, the tourism and processing industry center, Nanjing and Hangzhou, the administrative culture and commercial center, Ningbo, Zhoushan, and large and small ocean mountains.
    . The central cities in the underdeveloped areas in the area, such as Chongming in Shanghai, Yangzhou in northern Jiangsu, and Nantong, Jiaxing and Huzhou in northern Zhejiang.
    5. The suburban town in the central city in the area; such as Songjiang in Shanghai, Xiaoshan in Hangzhou.
    [Edit this paragraph] The development process of key cities and towns in the Yangtze River Delta
    The cultural history of the Yangtze River Delta region, coupled with developed water systems, rich land is better than the country's agriculture and handicraft industry, so that it is in our country A considerable urban group has been initially formed in the middle and late stages of feudal society. From the Ming Dynasty to the Qing Dynasty, nine larger commercial and handicraft cities and trading centers appeared in the Yangtze River Delta, Nanjing (Jiangning), Hangzhou, Suzhou, and Songjiang; Huzhou. At this time, Shanghai (the county) has developed into an important commercial center for the coastal north -south trade. In the past 150 years since modern times, the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration centered on Shanghai has roughly experienced three stages:
    (1) After the Opium War, the initial development of the commodity economy under the conditions of opening to the outside world, the Yangtze River Delta, Delta The formation and development stage of emerging and modern industrial and commercial urban agglomerations. (1842 ~ 1949)
    The foreign commodities at this stage began to pour in China, Chinese raw material products began to exit, and foreign trade and financial institutions also began to enter China. At the same time, the early modern modern industry of imported alternatives has begun to develop. At this time, Shanghai had risen into an industrial and commercial metropolis through large -scale infrastructure construction in the second half of the 19th century. By the 1930s, it became a trade center, financial center, and industrial center for the entire Yangtze River Delta and even the country. At the same time, Wuxi, Nantong, and Ningbo have also become important cities for secondary levels through superior geographical location and Hong Kong Xing City. The old cities such as Nanjing, Hangzhou, Zhenjiang, Yangzhou, Suzhou, and Changzhou declined due to the decline of the Grand Canal.
    (2) The planned economic system of the planned economic system. (1949 ~ 1978)
    Under various special environmental conditions, China chose the Soviet -style highly concentrated planned economic system and a closed economic development strategy. Thousands of cities are the same industry, and consumer cities are made into production cities, which makes cities' functions converge and the process of urbanization is extremely slow.
    (3) At the stage of reform and opening up and the development of the socialist market economy, the functional reorganization of urban agglomerations in the Yangtze River Delta region.
    This has become an international metropolis with its superior geographical location. The economic center, tertiary industry relations, and urban functions of the entire urban agglomeration have re -positioned and divided the division of labor. Through the above analysis of the development and evolution process of Shanghai and its surrounding urban agglomerations, especially since modern times, we can conclude that the development of key cities in the city agglomeration of the entire Yangtze River Delta region is in the development of infrastructure such as transportation and other infrastructure development Based on the important location of ports, channels, and transportation hubs, it is attractive and outer, and develops overseas with Shanghai as a trade, finance, and information center. This is also the trend of the Chinese economy from the feudal agricultural economy to the semi -feudal semi -colonial economy and the development of the market economy. Although after the liberation, it experienced the development stage of the planned economy, but after the re -positioning and adjustment of the urban function after reform and opening up, it still returned to the direction of relying on Shanghai, relying on transportation, and overseas development. This is the inevitable that my country's economy integrates into the world economy. There is a process from the center of Shanghai from establishing to disappearance to re -establishment. The city network of the entire Delta urban agglomeration has also gone through the process of developing from development to stagnation to re -development. This shows the importance of the establishment and development of a city belt.
    [Edit this paragraph] The current situation of key cities in Shanghai and the Yangtze River Delta
    It analysis of the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration from the perspective of space can be seen. At the intersection of "V", the city of Jiangsu is located in the north wing, the city of Zhejiang is located in the south, and the cities in the north wing are more than the south wing. In terms of administrative level, the Yangtze River Delta has the national municipality in Shanghai, the provincial capital Nanjing, Hangzhou, the state planned to be listed in Ningbo and 11 prefecture -level cities, with a total of 15 large and medium cities.
    It as far as the urban population is concerned, the entire entire level can be divided into five levels: a large city with a population of more than 5 million; Nanjing and Hangzhou greater than 2 million; Changzhou; Nantong, Yangzhou, and Zhenjiang on 50 to 1 million; Shaoxing, Taizhou, Huzhou, Jiaxing, and Zhoushan are 200,000 to 500,000.
    The following is the center of Shanghai. Through the analysis of the first degree, centrality and other urban network space characteristics of the city agglomeration of the Yangtze River Delta, we will discuss the relationship between Shanghai and the surrounding urban and towns and its key development areas.
    For the first point, the city's first point S = 3.7 can be found through calculation. The first, second, and tertiary industries are L.47, 2.86, and 4.0, respectively. This shows that the economy of the Yangtze River Delta is relatively developed, and the proportion of agriculture in the national economy is relatively low. The first level of the second industry is 2.86, which is low in the city's first position, which shows that the status of Shanghai's secondary industry in the entire urban agglomeration is relatively declining. This is the result of Shanghai adjusting the industrial structure and converting urban functions. It is also the result of Shanghai's vigorous development of the tertiary industry, spreading the secondary industry outward, and striving to become the result of the three centers. But relatively speaking, Shanghai's secondary industry is still high, mainly because Shanghai still maintains six pillar industries. With the main trend of outward diffusion, its first degree will continue to decline in the future. The first point of the Shanghai town system is 4, indicating that Shanghai's tertiary industry has developed greatly, but there is a large gap in Shanghai, which is compared to some international metropolis, and is still in the accumulation stage. With the further clarification and deepening of urban division of labor, the first level will continue to rise. Through the central calculation analysis, it clearly reflects the central functions of Shanghai and cities in Delta in different industries.
    1. The analysis of the first industry can see that the law of the centrality in various cities is not obvious. The main concentration of high centrality is in two types of regions of development and behind, indicating that on the one hand On the other hand, the level of agricultural economy and technology in developed regions is high, and the first industries are more developed.
    . For the second industry, Shanghai still maintains a higher level. Suzhou, Wuxi, and the natural good ports of Suzhou, Wuxi, and the national plan of the national plan are also the centrality of Ningbo Higher. Nanjing and Hangzhou temporarily lag behind in some areas with good "size in large cities" because of the country's long -term "strict control of large cities." Several cities with the lowest center northern Jiangsu lag far behind other regions because of traffic factors such as the Yangtze River.
    3. For the tertiary industry, Shanghai maintains a larger central degree (0.49). , Talent and other elements gather to the tertiary industry.
    . According to the analysis of the comprehensive central analysis, the Yangtze River Delta city can be divided into four levels: the first layer: Shanghai; the second layer: Wuxi, Ningbo, Hangzhou, Suzhou; the third layer: Zhoushan: Zhoushan , Shaoxing, Zhenjiang, Jiaxing, Nanjing, Huzhou; Fourth Floor: Yangzhou, Changzhou, Taizhou, Nantong. With Shanghai as the center, the reason why Su Xizhun is located on the second floor does not need to be said. Some cities on the third floor are due to poor location conditions (Zhenjiang, Shaoxing) or inconvenient traffic (Zhoushan, Huzhou), but they are located in the development axis ( Zhenjiang, Shaoxing, Huzhou) or characteristic industries (Zhoushan Fisheries). Although Nanjing is a provincial capital, on the one hand, it is a historical and cultural city. From an international point of view, this type of city has an inertia, that is, extending traditional concepts or traditional culture, which is relatively slow to accept fresh culture; on the other hand, The industrial diffusion is divided into grade diffusion and migration and diffusion. Although Nanjing transportation is better, it is far from Shanghai. It is not obvious to accept Shanghai's industrial transfer, and the level of level diffusion is not obvious. Therefore Development has made it an important city to undertake the eastern part of the west. In terms of location, Jiaxing is similar to Suzhou and Wuxi but it is less than that of Su and Xi, which may be related to the "economic breakage point". Based on the concept of "Fracture Point" proposed by Convers, the dividing point of the two central cities is the breakdown point of the two central cities. About 140 kilometers in the center of Shanghai. These two places are roughly the current Changzhou and Jiaxing area. They are attracted and radiated by the two central cities in the weakest areas, which may explain why these two cities are not as developed as Su and Tin, but their root causes are their own development policies and model issues. With the strengthening of Shanghai's radiation function, the economies of these two regions will be more influenced by Shanghai, and Shanghai should strengthen the connection and coordination with them.
    [Edit this paragraph] Variables that affect the key areas of the Yangtze River Delta
    This summary of the main economic, policies, transportation, and information variables in the Yangtze River Delta on the 15th plan on the Yangtze River Delta. In the next five years, the regional development speed is relatively fast. Important variables are in the following aspects:
    (1) Economic variables
    The industrial structure changes in major cities in the Yangtze River Delta after joining the World Trade Organization. Shanghai will continue to strengthen its support for the tertiary industry, so that it will reach the average level of nearly 60 % of GDP in the international metropolis. Suzhou, Wuxi, Ningbo, Hangzhou, and Shaoxing, five cities, will also be further strengthened in the next five years of export processing industry's advantages in the export processing industry due to their own advantages.
    (2) Policy variables
    mainly as far as the "fifteenth" planning of the two provinces of the country and the Yangtze River Delta. According to the "three -circle and four cities" planned in Jiangsu Province, Suzhou will further strengthen the role of Shanghai's "back garden". Wuxi will strengthen its status of its regional economic center, transportation hub, and tourist destinations. Newly rising metropolis. After Hangzhou's merger in Xiaoshan and Yuhang, the "Fifteenth Fifteenth" plan will also increase the status of its largest economic, cultural, tourism centers and transportation hubs in the southern wing of the Yangtze River Delta.
    (3) Traffic variables
    With the completion of the Yangtze River Delta Expressway Network in the "Fifteenth Fifteenth" planning, it will form a node with three central cities in Shanghai, Ning and Hangzhou, which constitutes a large triangle that forms a large triangle. Highway network, this will definitely drive a new round of development in node cities along the line. In particular, the completion of the Ninghang Highway will greatly promote the economic development of Huzhou. The construction of the coastal channel also has a huge driving role in the cities of Hangzhou Bay (Shaoxing, Jiaxing). In addition, the construction of large and small mountains and mountains and water ports will make Shanghai truly become the international shipping center, and it will also drive the rise of the port processing industry in the Zhoushan Islands (such as Shan Shan) and Luchao Port. The start of the Chongming River Project will not only make a huge change in Chongming Island, but also drive the entire northern Jiangsu economy, which will make the entire Yangtze River Delta a organic whole.
    [Edit this paragraph] The main problems of the current development of key cities in the Yangtze River Delta
    1. The modernization function of the core city is imperfect
    The core city of the Yangtze River Delta urban area, in modernization functions, in modernization functions Compared with international economic center cities such as New York, London, and Tokyo, there is still a large gap. Due to the insufficient proportion and backwardness of the tertiary industry, Shanghai lacks necessary financial, information and investment methods to impact the national economy. In the field of fundraising and foreign trade, Shanghai is similar to the status of large cities, and there are fewer large banks and large groups in national or cross -regions. The urban internal traffic information system is not yet developed, and the organization that affects urban functions.
    . The contradictions caused by the division of the administrative division are increasingly acute
    are regions, which hinders the free flow of economic resources and economic cooperation across regions. The Yangtze River Delta belongs to 15 cities in the two provinces and one city. The administrative affiliation relationship is very complicated, and the coordination between regions is very difficult. Coupled with the long -term segmentation management, it has promoted the bad atmosphere of their respective politics and even neighbors. This bad atmosphere seriously interfered with cooperation and coordination between local governments.
    3. The urban industry structure is serious, and the division of labor between cities is unclear
    In order to develop local economy and increase local income, when developing the economy, they often focus on a few industries with large taxes and highs. The natural endowment of the Delta region is relatively similar, so the industrial structure of the district is very serious. The convergence of the industrial structure so that all regions cannot play their own comparative advantages; at the same time, investment and production are decentralized, the economic effects cannot be exerted, and the overall economic benefits of the country are reduced. Leisure and waste of resources.
    4. Ecological environmental pollution is severe
    The population density in this area is high, and land carrying pressure is already very large. In recent years, due to the rapid development of industrialization and urbanization, the emissions of industrial sewage and domestic sewage have increased sharply, which has worsened the ecological environment, which has severely threatened the sustainable development of the district.
    [Edit this paragraph] The ideas and countermeasures for the coordinated development of key areas
    The urban system of the Yangtze River Delta has been relatively complete, and it has formed a large city, large cities, and middle cities. The seventh -level urban system composed of small cities, counties, counties, counties, and township -level towns. The town levels are complete and there are diverse types. 4: 17: 30. Such a urban architecture is conducive to controlling the blind expansion of the population of the core city, realizing the reasonable division of labor between cities at all levels, and giving full play to the overall advantages of the city belt. It is more reasonable. However, there are still large differences between the cities inside the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration. The main countermeasures for the coordinated development of the key areas of the solution include the following:
    The first, strengthen the comprehensive function of Shanghai as a regional core city, especially to cultivate the functions and functions and functions of the factor configuration center in a larger scale. Comprehensive service function.
    The second, enhance the economic strength of the central cities in the region, enhance its gathering and radiation capabilities within their respective range, determine the characteristics of urban functions, and promote the connection between urban functions.
    Third, in the entire area, promote the concentration of the population and economic factors of the level, gradually rationalize the relationship between prefecture -level cities and counties and cities, and solve the problem of too scattered small towns, so that the urban system space The layout is reasonable.
    Fourth, relying on the modern transportation system, build an integrated urban system, and promote the network construction of transportation infrastructure. The construction of a cross -regional transportation system in the Yangtze River Delta region is to focus on the construction of the international shipping center. It is mainly to build the main hub port (large and small yam port), build a sparse transport system to promote the reasonable division of labor in each port; The improvement of the system is closely integrated. The basic goal is to enable the driving time between any two prefecture -level cities in the Delta region to control less than 4 hours, of which Shanghai to various prefecture -level cities can be less than 3 hours. In the region's urban functional positioning, it is roughly divided into three categories: one is the resource allocation center of the Delta region, the highest level city (Shanghai). The second category is regional resource allocation center, namely secondary cities or regional sub -centers. Both cities should be cities with comprehensive functions. The third category is cities with professional functions, such as tourist cities, transportation hub cities, and professional industrial cities. The development goal of the overall urbanization level of the region is that by 2015 ~ 2020, the entire urban agglomeration will carry more than 60 million people, including 60 % of the population of the region, or more than 40 million, and about 20 million foreign population; New industrial and educational industries, cultural industries and health undertakings; forming a modern transportation network of large -scale high -efficiency flow in international, domestic personnel and materials.
    Fifth, in addition to vigorously improving the comprehensive service function of the core city, it should also strengthen the urbanization of small and medium -sized cities, especially in the suburbs of central cities. By increasing the transformation of urban transportation infrastructure, building a new area and other channels, expanding the size of the city, exerting the scale effect of urban infrastructure operations, and promoting the urbanization level of Shanghai and surrounding cities. Increase the coordination and radiation of key cities in Shanghai and surrounding areas, make full use of the "15" planning periods such as the "15th" planning period to enhance the central position of Shanghai in the entire Yangtze River Delta city network.
    With the influx of foreign population, traffic pressure in cities in the Yangtze River Delta region is increasing. At present, the construction of urban tunnels has quietly emerged in the Yangtze River Delta region. Urban tunnels generally refer to traffic tunnels, which are important nodes connecting highways and urban roads, as well as water transport tunnels and pipeline tunnels.

    The concept of the Pearl River Delta
    The concept of "Pearl River Delta" originated in the early 1990s. In the late 1990s, the concept of the "Great Pearl River Delta" appeared on the basis of "(small) Pearl River Delta". In 2003, the concept of the "Pan -Pearl River Delta" was proposed. At this point, the "Pearl River Delta" actually includes the concepts of "Little Pearl River Delta", "Big Pearl River Delta", and "Panzhu Truis" that are distinguished and closely related to each other.
    "The Coordinated Development Plan for the Pearl River Delta Town Group (2004-2020)" clearly stated that the Pearl River Delta, the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone, including Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Zhuhai, Foshan, Jiangmen, Dongguan, Zhongshan, Huizhou and Zhaoqing The city has a total population of 42.3 million and a total land area of ​​41,698 square kilometers. Among them, the area of ​​construction land (including urban construction land, construction of town construction, and village construction land) is 6,640 square kilometers.
    [Edit this paragraph] The Pearl River Delta area
    The concept of "Pearl River Delta" was officially proposed for the first time. On October 8, 1994, the Guangdong Provincial Party Committee proposed the construction of the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone at the Third Plenary Session of the Seventh Session. The "Pearl River Delta" was originally composed of 6 cities in Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Foshan, Zhuhai, Dongguan, Zhongshan and a part of Huizhou, Qingyuan and Zhaoqing. Essence Later, the "Pearl River Delta" area was adjusted and expanded into the areas of Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Foshan, Zhuhai, Dongguan, Zhongshan, Huizhou, Jiangmen, and Zhaoqing along the Pearl River. This is the "Pearl River Delta" or " "Little Pearl River Delta". The "Little Pearl River Delta" area is 24,437 square kilometers, less than 14 % of the land area of ​​Guangdong Province, and the population is 42.83 million, accounting for 61 % of the population of Guangdong Province. In 2008, the GDP value of the "Little Pearl River Delta" reached 2974.558 billion yuan (US $ 434.2843 billion), accounting for 10%of the country. On January 8, 2009, the State Council issued the "Outline of Reform and Development Planning of the Pearl River Delta region (2008-2020)". The outline proposes that by 2012, the Pearl River Delta region composed of Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Foshan, Zhuhai, Dongguan, Zhongshan, Huizhou, Jiangmen, and Zhaoqing will be the first to build a comprehensive well -off society with a total of 80,000 yuan per capita. In the first year, the first modernization was basically achieved, and the GDP per capita region reached 135,000 yuan.
    [Edit this paragraph] The Greater Pearl River Delta area
    "Big Pearl River Delta" has two different concepts, one refers to the "Little Pearl River Delta" and Hong Kong and Macao, and the other is Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao. The "Great Pearl River Delta" is currently referred to as the areas of Guangdong, Hong Kong, and Macau. The "Great Pearl River Delta" covers an area of ​​181,000 square kilometers, with a total household registration population of 86.79 million. In 2003, the total value of GDP was 328.7 billion US dollars. According to economic scale, the "Great Pearl River Delta" is equivalent to 1.2 times the Yangtze River Delta.
    [Edit this paragraph] The Pan -Pearl River Delta area
    "Pan -Pearl River Delta" includes the adjacent regions of the Pearl River Basin and closely economic and trade relations Fujian, Jiangxi, Guangxi, Hainan, Hunan, Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou and Guangdong 9 provinces and regions, and two special administrative districts in Hong Kong and Macau, referred to as "9 2". The "Pan -Pearl River Delta" has an area of ​​2006,000 square kilometers, with a total household registration population of 456.98 million, and a total value of GDP 526.57 billion yuan (US $ 635.6 billion). Among them, the area of ​​9 provinces accounts for 20.9%of the country, the population accounts for 34.8%of the country, and the total value of GDP accounts for 33.3%of the country.
    [Edit this paragraph] Dazhu River Delta urban group
    The region of the urban groups in the Great Pearl River Delta includes the whole territory of Hong Kong, Macau and Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Zhuhai, Foshan, Dongguan, Zhongshan, Jiangmen City, and Huizhou The city of Huicheng and Huiyang District, Huidong's Boluo County, Duanzhou and Dinghu District of Zhaoqing City, Dinghu District, Gaoyao and Sihui City, the land area exceeds 42831.5 square kilometers.
    three parties of the Guangdong Provincial Department of Housing and Urban -Rural Development, the Hong Kong Development Bureau and the Macau Transportation Work Department. Report. The Guangdong -Hong Kong -Macao governments have jointly released the results in Macau. The "Great Pearl River Delta" areas consisting of the nine cities of Hong Kong, Macau and the Pearl River Delta will be built into the world's most prosperous and vibrant economic center and world -class urban groups. As my country's first spatial coordination research across different institutional boundaries, the partition target formulated by the report is: the Pearl River Delta must be built into a world -class advanced manufacturing and modern service base and important economic centers in the country; Hong Kong must continue to consolidate Asia International The status of the metropolis is further promoted to one of the world's important modern service centers, and strives to build a global city with high -quality life; Macau must become the world's most attractive tourism and leisure center and regional business service platform.
    The research report proposes to build a multi -level and central space development model of the Greater Pearl River Delta. Among them, the "One Bay and Three Districts" refers to the three major metropolitan areas of the Pearl River Kouwan District and the three metropolitan areas of Guangfo, Hong Kong, and Australia. External, it will form the core space of global urban functions similar to New York and London with the "sign" character; internally, the "central" character has driven the overall development of the Dazhu River Delta urban group and the ring of the Rings River Delta. In the future, through rail transit and highway infrastructure construction, the Greater Pearl River Delta will realize an hourly traffic circle.

    The introduction
    The overall structure of the Beijing -Tianjin -Hebei urban agglomeration [2] adopts the "point -axis" development model; Start. According to the definition of the National Development and Reform Commission, the Beijing -Tianjin -Hebei urban agglomerations include Beijing, Tangshan, Baoding, Qinhuangdao, Langfang, Cangzhou, Chengde, Zhangjiakou, which are in Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei Province. New District and Tangshan Cao Feidian Industrial New Realm. The area of ​​Beijing -Tianjin -Hebei urban groups is 183,400 square kilometers and a population of 85 million.
    [Edit this paragraph] Development mode
    The development of the "point" of the Beijing -Tianjin -Hebei urban groups is the main "node" with core cities and sub -central cities to make overall development; The development of the "axis" is the development of major transportation corridors and industrial band inside and outside the urban agglomeration. The specific development concept of "point" is to adopt the "2 8 4" mode to promote the development of the urban agglomeration "node" city, that is, promote two core cities, eight central cities, and Binhai New District, Tongzhou, Shunyi, Tangshan Caofeidian, etc. The development of emerging cities; the development idea of ​​the "axis" is composed of the main traffic lines between cities in the Beijing -Tianjin -Hebei urban agglomeration and the industrial belt and urban dense belt distributed along the transportation line. The development of the "axis" will be based on the high -tech industries such as Zhongguancun Science and Technology Park and Binhai New District, and use the rapid comprehensive transportation corridor as the link to promote the development of the main axis of Tongzhou, Langfang, and Binhai New District; The five major ports on the west coast of the Bohai Sea are the core of development and promote the rapid development of the urban development belt of Qinhuangdao, Tangshan, Tianjin, and Cangzhou. [1]
    [Edit this paragraph] Main problems
    The main problems in the development of the Beijing -Tianjin -Hebei urban agglomeration are two aspects. First, the overall level of economic development of the Beijing -Tianjin -Hebei urban agglomeration needs to be improved. The total economic volume of the Beijing -Tianjin -Hebei urban agglomeration is relatively large, but the total production value of the region that reflects the level of regional economic development is far lower than the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta; the second is that the leading role of core cities in the development of regional development is not obvious. The two core cities of Beijing -Tianjin -Hebei coexist. There are too many low -level cities, and there are fewer medium cities. Among them, Beijing's urban functions, technology, and industries have begun to spread to surrounding areas; Tianjin is increasing in a certain period of time due to the development of the northern economic center and the development and construction of Binhai New District; The strength is not strong, and the development level of the Beijing -Tianjin cities is significant. It is limited to accepting the core economic radiation capacity, making it difficult for the urban agglomeration to share the development results of central cities. [1]
    [Edit this paragraph] Urban positioning
    The development of the Beijing -Tianjin -Hebei urban agglomeration is accurate positioning, and cities should make full use of their respective advantages and dislocated development. The "dual -core" cities in Beijing and Tianjin should be positioned as the economic strength and radiation functions that lead the regional, national and international competition; 8 sub -central cities shall undertake the radiation of Beijing -Tianjin in accordance with their respective comparative advantages and the integration of urban group regions, and to solve Beijing The urban functions that are too concentrated; actively promote the development of emerging cities such as Binhai New District, Tongzhou, Shunyi and Caofeidian. [1]

  3. China's most concentrated area, the smallest and most developed is the area of ​​5 cities in Foshan, Guangzhou, Dongguan, Dongguan, Hong Kong. Guangzhou Trade Dongguan's foreign industry Foshan internal industry, etc. If it can be integrated in the same city

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